Korean Society of Leisure, Recreation & Park

Current Issue

Korean Journal of Leisure, Recreation & Park - Vol. 46 , No. 3

[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Leisure, Recreation & Park - Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 83-92
Abbreviation: KSLRP
ISSN: 1598-0413 (Print)
Print publication date 30 Sep 2022
Received 31 Jul 2022 Revised 08 Sep 2022 Accepted 23 Sep 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.26446/kjlrp.2022.9.46.3.83

The Moderating Role of Social Class on the Relationship between Motivation and Outdoor Recreation
Jun, Jinhee1
1Hallym University

여가동기와 아웃도어레크리에이션 관계에 미치는 사회계층 조절효과
전진희1
1한림대학교 교수
Correspondence to : Jun, Jinhee E-mail: jjun@hallym.ac.kr


Abstract

This study examined how the relationship between motivation and outdoor recreation varies between high and low social classes. Using multidimensional conceptualization of motivation, a model was tested where the effects of motivational dimensions on outdoor recreation were moderated by social class. Results indicated that social class was a statistically significant moderator, such that variation in the sign or strength of the path coefficients was observed between high and low social classes. For the low social class, outdoor recreation was positively predicted by the desire for learning and leisure experience while the need for social interaction had a negative impact on outdoor recreation. For the high social class, outdoor recreation was positively affected by the desire for solitude and self-reflection and leisure experience. The need for leisure experience had greater impact on outdoor recreation for respondents in low social class than those in high class.


Keywords: social class, motivation, outdoor recreation
키워드: 사회계층, 여가동기, 아웃도어레크리에이션

References
1. Bieger, T., & Laesser, C. (2002). Market segmentation by motivation: The case of Switzerland. Journal of Travel Research, 41(1), 68-76.
2. Bollen, K A, (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: Wiley.
3. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1984. Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. New York: Routledge.
4. Carvache-Franco, M., Carvache-Franco, O., Carvache-Franco, W., Villagómez-Buele, C., & Saltos-Layana, A. (2020). Sociodemographic aspects and their relationship with the ecotourists' motivations in a coastal national park from Ecuador. Geo Journal of Tourism and Geosites, 31(3), 1075-1082.
5. Coˆte´, S., Gyurak, A., & Levenson, R. W. (2010). The ability to regulate emotion is associated with greater well-being, income, and socioeconomic status. Emotion, 10, 923–933.
6. DeVol, P. (2006). Using the hidden rules of class to create sustainable communities. Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc.
7. Driver, B. L. & Knopf, R. C. (1977). Personality, outdoor recreation, and expected consequences. Environment and Behavior, 9, 169–193.
8. Driver, B. L. & Tocher, S. R. (1970). Elements of outdoor recreation planning. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International.
9. Driver, B. L., Tinsley, H. E., & Manfredo, M. J. (1991). The paragraphs about leisure and recreation experience preference scales: Results from two inventories designed to assess the breadth of the perceived psychological benefits of leisure. Benefits of Leisure, 263-286.
10. Henry, P. (2001). An examination of the pathways through which social class impacts health outcomes. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 1(3), 165-177.
11. Humphreys, B. R., & Ruseski, J. E. (2006). Economic determinants of participation in physical activity and sport. Unpublished Working Paper Series, (06-13), 1-25.
12. Humphreys, B. R., & Ruseski, J. E. (2007). Participation in physical activity and government spending on parks and recreation. Contemporary Economic Policy, 25(4), 538-552.
13. Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1999). Motivational foundations of leisure. In E. L. Jackson & T. L. Burton (Eds.), Leisure studies: Prospects for the twenty-first century (pp. 35–51). State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc.
14. Jensen, J. M. (2011, November). The relationships between socio-demographic variables, travel motivations and subsequent choice of vacation. In 2nd International Conference on Economics, Business and Management (Vol. 22, pp. 37-44).
15. Johnson, S., Richeson, J., & Finkel, E. (2011). Middle class and marginal? Socioeconomic status, stigma, and self-regulation at an elite university. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 838-852.
16. Kraus, M., Piff, P., Mendoza-Denton, P., Rheinschmidt, M., & Keltner, D. (2012). Social class, solipsism, and contextualism: How the rich are different from the poor, Psychological Review, 119, 546-572.
17. Lawler, E. E. (1973). Motivations in work organizations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
18. Li, M., Huang, Z., & Cai, L. A. (2009). Benefit segmentation of visitors to a rural community‐based festival. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 26(5-6), 585-598.
19. Ma, A. T., Chow, A. S., Cheung, L. T., Lee, K. M., & Liu, S. (2018). Impacts of tourists’ sociodemographic characteristics on the travel motivation and satisfaction: the case of protected areas in South China. Sustainability, 10(10), 3388.
20. Manfredo, M. J., Driver, B. L., & Tarrant, M. A. (1996). Measuring leisure motivation: A metaanalysis of the Recreation Experience Preference scales. Journal of Leisure Research, 28, 188–213.
21. Manning, R. E. (1999). Studies in outdoor recreation: Search and research for satisfaction. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.
22. Meltzer, D. O., & Jena, A. B. (2010). The economics of intense exercise. Journal of Health Economics, 29(3), 347-352.
23. Neulinger, J. (1981). The psychology of leisure (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
24. Rohrer, T., & Haller, M. (2015). Sport and social inequality: New findings from the international comparison. Kolner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 67(1), 57–82.
25. Rose, J. (2016). Leisure and social class. Diversity and inclusion in the recreation profession: Organizational perspectives, 123-144.
26. Scott, D., & Munson, W. (1994). Perceived constraints to park usage among individuals with low incomes. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 12, 79–96.
27. Walker, G. J. (2016). Social class and basic psychological need satisfaction during leisure and paid work. Journal of Leisure Research, 48(3), 228-244.